Cosmogony, the study of the formation of planets, is perhaps one of the most researched topics in the Plasma Universe.
Hannes Alfven devoted decades to an exhaustive study of all aspects of this problem: ironically, little of this research is known beyond that stored in archives.
The crucial element in Alfven's Cosmogony is the predition of a mechanism, the Critical Ionization Velocity (CIV) effect. While CIV has been known in laboratory experiments for decades, such as in the formation of a Penumbra in the Dense Plasma Focus, it's existence in the solar system has been in doubt. In the laboratory CIV limits the velocity attainable in plasma guns used to determine the equation of state of various solid elements.
The figure above, first sketched for the author by W. H. Bostick, has seen appreciable duty: each time improved upon by the latest user.
Externally Recorded Penumbra